Genetic engineering has become an important approach and capability of the EGSB team in solving environmental health problems facing the military and the Nation. We have developed or are in the process of developing novel genetic engineering-based technologies. For instance, in the development of gene silencing technologies, we fused small regulatory RNAs or artificial microRNAs with cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) and delivered them to the target cells or tissues to inhibit the growth of invasive species. We also engineered CPP-based therapeutic peptides to counteract the overstimulation of the acetylcholine receptor caused by organophosphate nerve agent poisoning.