The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) concept represents a paradigm shift in how chemical toxicity is characterized and understood.   AOPs represent toxicity pathways that establish the mechanistic connections across biological scales starting with a molecular initiating event (MIE) that affects a potential cascade of key events (KEs) that may span multiple levels of biological organization (i.e. metabolic pathways -> cells -> tissues -> organs) that ultimately conclude in an adverse outcome (AO) at the individual- or population-level. The EGSB has broad experience in developing AOPs for chemicals of concern (Collier et al 2016, Gong et al 2015, Wilbanks et al 2014, Garcia-Reyero et al 2016) and we also contribute to the overall community of practice that is advancing the use of AOPs to solve environmental problems (Collier et al 2016, Garcia-Reyero 2015, Gust et al 2016). We can develop fully customized AOPs relevant to your chemical of interest. Contact us for a consultation. 


  • Collier, Z.A., Gust, K.A., Gonzalez-Morales, B., Gong, P., Wilbanks, M.S., Linkov, I., Perkins, E.J., 2016. A weight of evidence assessment approach for adverse outcome pathways. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 75, 46-57.
  • Garcia-Reyero, N., Kennedy, A.J., Escalon, B.L., Habib, T., Laird, J.G., Rawat, A., Wiseman, S., Hecker, M., Denslow, N., Steevens, J.A., Perkins, E.J., 2014. Differential effects and potential adverse outcomes of ionic silver and silver nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 4546-4555.
  • Garcia-Reyero, N., 2015. Are Adverse Outcome Pathways Here to Stay? Environ. Sci. Technol. 49, 3-9.Gong, P., Hong, H., Perkins, E.J., 2015. Ionotropic GABA receptor antagonism-induced adverse outcome pathways for potential neurotoxicity biomarkers. Biomark. Med. 9, 1225-1239.
  • Gust, K.A., Collier, Z.A., Mayo, M.L., Stanley, J.K., Gong, P., Chappell, M.A., 2016. Limitations of toxicity characterization in life cycle assessment: Can adverse outcome pathways provide a new foundation? Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 12, 580-590.
  • Wilbanks, M.S., Gust, K.A., Atwa, S., Sunesara, I., Johnson, D., Ang, C.Y., Meyer, S.A., Perkins, E.J., 2014. Validation of a genomics-based hypothetical adverse outcome pathway: 2,4-dinitrotoluene perturbs PPAR signaling thus impairing energy metabolism and exercise endurance. Toxicol. Sci. 141, 44-58.